What’s the vegan stance on horseback riding? Is riding horses cruel? This is quite the controversial topic and one I will be covering in more than one video and blog post.
For this initial look into horseback riding, I’m going to first address the question of whether riding horse is vegan and then I’ll move into whether it’s cruel.
As I said in my video about wool, veganism, in general, is about opposing the use of animals for our own personal gains in any form whatsoever. If we look at horseback riding, it’s evident that horses do not need to be ridden. They seem to do very well for themselves in the wild without one of us atop them. Horseback riding solely benefits the rider and is thus a form of using animals for entertainment.
Now this is not a popular stance and there are several arguments as to how riding benefits the horse: One of these is that domesticated horses need the exercise. The most simple response to this is that domesticated dogs also need exercise, yet owners are somewhat able to provide this without mounting them.
A second argument is that riding provides horses with an enriched environment. Again, this can as easily be achieved without someone atop them by walking a horse from the ground.
A third argument is one that comes in many forms but always starts with “by my horse loves…” and insert being ridden, going to shows, wearing a bridle, having a bit, running the barrels, and what have you.
Perhaps there is a horse out there who genuinely loves to be ridden–it is still important to understand the impact of riding on a horse's body. What I’m going to cover is a cursory look into the impact of horseback riding on horses. I have links to additional resources a the foot of this post and I urge you to reference those studies to delve deeper into his topic.
Let’s start with skeletal structure. There is a saying that a horse is ready to ride when their “knees close.” This refers to waiting until the growth plates just above the knee convert from cartilage to bone. Dr. Den Bennet in her article, Time and Rate of Skeletal Maturation in Horses, states, “what people often don’t realize is that there is a “growth plate” on either end of every bone behind the skull, and in the case of some bones (like the pelvis or vertebrae, which have many ‘corners’) there are multiple growth plates.” She goes on to detail the exact schedule of growth plate conversion to bone in horses.
While many people start riding their horses around age 2 (in racing) and 3 (in leisure riding), Dr. Bennet’s detailed schedule shows that the last plates to fuse are in the vertebral column, and this does not occur until the horse is at least five and a half years old, with taller horses and males taking even longer.
According to 2002 study, Practical Anatomy and Propaedeutic of the Horse, the length of time for complete growth of the epiphyseal plates (cartilage) in the body of the lumbar vertebrae of thoroughbred horses, for example, is not until they are (on average) between 6 and 9 years old!
The basic takeaway of this is that it’s incredibly easy to damage a horses back and displace his or her vertebral growth plates, causing pain and lasting injury.
Aside from the issue of growth plate fusion, riding a horse at any age causes skeletal damage as well as muscle and tissue. Alexander Nevzorov of Nevzorov Haute Ecole states “a horse’s back is not a seat, not a place for a human butt, not a piece of ‘meat', not some sort of ‘terra firma'. It is a very complex and tender anatomical structure with extraordinary functions. Besides the obvious biomechanical function, the back has another very important function. The spinal cord’s work is to guarantee that the responses from the entire nervous system can communicate the senses of taste, smell, vision, hearing, and vestibular function to the brain, not to get lost in too much detail. on this especially vulnerable, sensitive organ, onto the medulla spinalis, the brain of the back, sits a rider.” (Nezvorov Haute Ecole Eqeuine Anthology, VOL. 4, p10-11)
In a 2007 study by Matilda Homer and colleagues, out of the 295 horses in the study who were considered physically sound upon initial examination, 91.5 percent of were diagnosed with some kind of alteration on the spinal processes after x-ray. Almost always the spinal processes of the caudal saddle position were affected. the most frequent results were diminished internal spaces of spinal processes including changes of the bone structure of the spinal processes.
The spinal damage from weight alone is compounded by the use of saddles, harnesses, bits, and whips. saddles restrict blood flow to the arterial capillary bed causing tissue damage, as well as general wear and chafing. but nothing is quite as cruel as the use of bits and whips, which I’m only going to give a cursory nod to in this post
Bits cause pain and damage to a horse’s complex cranial nerves as well as their teeth, tongue and palate. facial nerves are extremely close to the skin and thus extremely sensitive. It is essential to understand that there is absolutely no way to use a bit without the horse feeling pain.
For the scope of this post, I’ll just say this about whips: It’s a whip! Would you whip your dog? and yes a horse is large than a dog, and many argue, has thick skin, but where the whips land- around the area of the muscle vastus lateralis–the thickness rarely exceeds 2 millimeters and the skin dermis and epidermis is supplied with a large amount of nerves. And…it’s a whip!
Now this all just scraping the surface of the horse issue. I haven’t even addressed the breaking of horses, horse racing, the rodeo or other topics—please see the posts linked below for more in the horse ethics series.
And if you find it hard to take my word given my lack of experience with horses, please see this interview with Ren Hurst, about her journey away from riding after trading and training horses professionally.
▶︎ RESOURCES, VIDEOS & STUDIES:
For more information, please utilize these resources. Most of these studies contain additional citations.
Time And Rate Of Skeletal Maturation In Horses by Dr. Den Bennet
Röntgenveränderungen an den Dornfortsätzen von 295 klinisch rückengesunden Warmblutpferden (Changes to the Spinous of 295 Clinically Healthy Warmblood Horses) by Matilda Holmer, Bettina Wollanke und Guido Stadtbäumer
The Cruelty of Equestrian Sport by Alexander Nezvorov
The Horse Under Pressure (effects of the saddle) by Patricia de Cocq
Harm of Whips by Fair Horsemanship